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These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698.Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756.Kalikata was a fishing village; Sutanuti was a riverside weavers' village.They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the jagirdari (a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen) taxation rights to the villages were held by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or zamindars.
Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 17, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture.
Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports.
) [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city eventually was to be established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.
Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi.
Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics.
In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India.